Rule 14. Third-Party Practice (2023)

(a) When a Defending Party May Bring in a Third Party.

(1) Timing of the Summons and Complaint. A defending party may, as third-party plaintiff, serve a summons and complaint on a nonparty who is or may be liable to it for all or part of the claim against it. But the third-party plaintiff must, by motion, obtain the court's leave if it files the third-party complaint more than 14 days after serving its original answer.

(2) Third-Party Defendant's Claims and Defenses. The person served with the summons and third-party complaint—the “third-party defendant”:

(A) must assert any defense against the third-party plaintiff's claim under Rule 12;

(B) must assert any counterclaim against the third-party plaintiff under Rule 13a, and may assert any counterclaim against the third-party plaintiff under Rule 13(b) or any crossclaim against another third-party defendant under Rule 13(g);

(C) may assert against the plaintiff any defense that the third-party plaintiff has to the plaintiff's claim; and

(D) may also assert against the plaintiff any claim arising out of the transaction or occurrence that is the subject matter of the plaintiff's claim against the third-party plaintiff.

(Video) Rule 14: Summons | Rules of Court | by Atty. Deriquito-Mawis

(3) Plaintiff's Claims Against a Third-Party Defendant. The plaintiff may assert against the third-party defendant any claim arising out of the transaction or occurrence that is the subject matter of the plaintiff's claim against the third-party plaintiff. The third-party defendant must then assert any defense under Rule 12 and any counterclaim under Rule 13(a), and may assert any counterclaim under Rule 13(b) or any crossclaim under Rule 13(g).

(4) Motion to Strike, Sever, or Try Separately. Any party may move to strike the third-party claim, to sever it, or to try it separately.

(5) Third-Party Defendant's Claim Against a Nonparty. A third-party defendant may proceed under this rule against a nonparty who is or may be liable to the third-party defendant for all or part of any claim against it.

(6) Third-Party Complaint In Rem. If it is within the admiralty or maritime jurisdiction, a third-party complaint may be in rem. In that event, a reference in this rule to the “summons” includes the warrant of arrest, and a reference to the defendant or third-party plaintiff includes, when appropriate, a person who asserts a right under Supplemental Rule C(6)(a)(i) in the property arrested.

(b) When a Plaintiff May Bring in a Third Party. When a claim is asserted against a plaintiff, the plaintiff may bring in a third party if this rule would allow a defendant to do so.

(c) Admiralty or Maritime Claim.

(1) Scope of Impleader. If a plaintiff asserts an admiralty or maritime claim under Rule 9(h), the defendant or a person who asserts a right under Supplemental Rule C(6)(a)(i) may, as a third-party plaintiff, bring in a third-party defendant who may be wholly or partly liable—either to the plaintiff or to the third-party plaintiff— for remedy over, contribution, or otherwise on account of the same transaction, occurrence, or series of transactions or occurrences.

(2) Defending Against a Demand for Judgment for the Plaintiff. The third-party plaintiff may demand judgment in the plaintiff's favor against the third-party defendant. In that event, the third-party defendant must defend under Rule 12 against the plaintiff's claim as well as the third-party plaintiff's claim; and the action proceeds as if the plaintiff had sued both the third-party defendant and the third-party plaintiff.


(As amended Dec. 27, 1946, eff. Mar. 19, 1948; Jan. 21, 1963, eff. July 1, 1963; Feb. 28, 1966, eff. July 1, 1966; Mar. 2, 1987, eff. Aug. 1, 1987; Apr. 17, 2000, eff. Dec. 1, 2000; Apr. 12, 2006, eff. Dec. 1, 2006; Apr. 30, 2007, eff. Dec. 1, 2007; Mar. 26, 2009, eff. Dec. 1, 2009.)

(Video) How To Tackle Joinder

Notes of Advisory Committee on Rules—1937

Third-party impleader is in some aspects a modern innovation in law and equity although well known in admiralty. Because of its many advantages a liberal procedure with respect to it has developed in England, in the Federal admiralty courts, and in some American State jurisdictions. See English Rules Under the Judicature Act (The Annual Practice, 1937) O. 16A, r.r. 1–13; United States Supreme Court Admiralty Rules (1920), Rule 56 (Right to Bring in Party Jointly Liable); Pa.Stat.Ann. (Purdon, 1936) Title 12, §141; Wis.Stat. (1935) §§260.19, 260.20; N.Y.C.P.A. (1937) §§193 (2), 211(a). Compare La.Code Pract. (Dart, 1932) §§378–388. For the practice in Texas as developed by judicial decision, see Lottman v. Cuilla, 288 S.W. 123, 126 (Tex., 1926). For a treatment of this subject see Gregory, Legislative Loss Distribution in Negligence Actions (1936); Shulman and Jaegerman, Some Jurisdictional Limitations on Federal Procedure (1936), 45 Yale L.J. 393, 417, et seq.

Third-party impleader under the conformity act has been applied in actions at law in the Federal courts. Lowry and Co., Inc., v. National City Bank of New York, 28 F.(2d) 895 (S.D.N.Y., 1928); Yellow Cab Co. of Philadelphia v. Rodgers, 61 F.(2d) 729 (C.C.A.3d, 1932).

Notes of Advisory Committee on Rules—1946 Amendment

The provisions in Rule 14(a) which relate to the impleading of a third party who is or may be liable to the plaintiff have been deleted by the proposed amendment. It has been held that under Rule 14(a) the plaintiff need not amend his complaint to state a claim against such third party if he does not wish to do so. Satink v. Holland Township (D.N.J. 1940) 31 F.Supp. 229, noted (1940) 88 U.Pa.L.Rev. 751; Connelly v. Bender (E.D.Mich. 1941) 36 F.Supp. 368; Whitmire v. Partin v. Milton (E.D.Tenn. 1941) 5 Fed.Rules Serv. 14a.513, Case 2; Crim v. Lumbermen's Mutual Casualty Co. (D.D.C. 1939) 26 F.Supp. 715; Carbola Chemical Co., Inc. v. Trundle (S.D.N.Y. 1943) 7 Fed.Rules Serv. 14a.224, Case 1; Roadway Express, Inc. v. Automobile Ins. Co. of Hartford, Conn. v. Providence Washington Ins. Co. (N.D.Ohio 1945) 8 Fed.Rules Serv. 14a.513, Case 3. In Delano v. Ives (E.D.Pa. 1941) 40 F.Supp. 672, the court said: “. . . the weight of authority is to the effect that a defendant cannot compel the plaintiff, who has sued him, to sue also a third party whom he does not wish to sue, by tendering in a third party complaint the third party as an additional defendant directly liable to the plaintiff.” Thus impleader here amounts to no more than a mere offer of a party to the plaintiff, and if he rejects it, the attempt is a time-consuming futility. See Satink v. Holland Township, supra; Malkin v. Arundel Corp. (D.Md. 1941) 36 F.Supp. 948; also Koenigsberger, Suggestions for Changes in the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure , (1941) 4 Fed.Rules Serv. 1010. But cf. Atlantic Coast Line R. Co. v. United States Fidelity & Guaranty Co. (M.D.Ga. 1943) 52 F.Supp. 177. Moreover, in any case where the plaintiff could not have joined the third party originally because of jurisdictional limitations such as lack of diversity of citizenship, the majority view is that any attempt by the plaintiff to amend his complaint and assert a claim against the impleaded third party would be unavailing. Hoskie v. Prudential Ins. Co. of America v. Lorrac Real Estate Corp. (E.D.N.Y. 1941) 39 F.Supp. 305; Johnson v. G. J. Sherrard Co. v. New England Telephone & Telegraph Co. (D.Mass. 1941) 5 Fed.Rules Serv. 14a.511, Case 1, 2 F.R.D. 164; Thompson v. Cranston (W.D.N.Y. 1942) 6 Fed.Rules Serv. 14a.511, Case 1, 2 F.R.D. 270, aff'd (C.C.A.2d, 1942) 132 F.(2d) 631, cert. den. (1943) 319 U.S. 741; Friend v. Middle Atlantic Transportation Co. (C.C.A.2d, 1946) 153 F.(2d) 778, cert. den. (1946) 66 S.Ct. 1370; Herrington v. Jones (E.D.La. 1941) 5 Fed.Rules Serv. 14a.511, Case 2, 2 F.R.D. 108; Banks v. Employers’ Liability Assurance Corp. v. Central Surety & Ins. Corp. (W.D.Mo. 1943) 7 Fed.Rules Serv. 14a.11, Case 2; Saunders v. Baltimore & Ohio R. Co. (S.D.W.Va. 1945) 9 Fed.Rules Serv. 14a.62, Case 2; Hull v. United States Rubber Co. v. Johnson Larsen & Co. (E.D.Mich. 1945) 9 Fed.Rules Serv. 14a.62, Case 3. See also concurring opinion of Circuit Judge Minton in People of State of Illinois for use of Trust Co. of Chicago v. Maryland Casualty Co. (C.C.A.7th, 1942) 132 F.(2d) 850, 853. Contra: Sklar v. Hayes v. Singer (E.D.Pa. 1941) 4 Fed.Rules Serv. 14a.511, Case 2, 1 F.R.D. 594. Discussion of the problem will be found in Commentary, Amendment of Plaintiff's Pleading to Assert Claim Against Third-Party Defendant (1942) 5 Fed.Rules Serv. 811; Commentary, Federal Jurisdiction in Third-Party Practice (1943) 6 Fed.Rules Serv. 766; Holtzoff, Some Problems Under Federal Third-Party Practice (1941) 3 La.L.Rev. 408, 419–420; 1. Moore's Federal Practice (1938) Cum.Supplement §14.08. For these reasons therefore, the words “or to the plaintiff” in the first sentence of subdivision (a) have been removed by the amendment; and in conformance therewith the words “the plaintiff” in the second sentence of the subdivision, and the words “or to the third-party plaintiff” in the concluding sentence thereof have likewise been eliminated.

The third sentence of Rule 14(a) has been expanded to clarify the right of the third-party defendant to assert any defenses which the third-party plaintiff may have to the plaintiff's claim. This protects the impleaded third-party defendant where the third-party plaintiff fails or neglects to assert a proper defense to the plaintiff's action. A new sentence has also been inserted giving the third-party defendant the right to assert directly against the original plaintiff any claim arising out of the transaction or occurrence that is the subject matter of the plaintiff's claim against the third-party plaintiff. This permits all claims arising out of the same transaction or occurrence to be heard and determined in the same action. See Atlantic Coast Line R. Co. v. United States Fidelity & Guaranty Co. (M.D.Ga. 1943) 52 F.Supp. 177. Accordingly, the next to the last sentence of subdivision (a) has also been revised to make clear that the plaintiff may, if he desires, assert directly against the third-party defendant either by amendment or by a new pleading any claim he may have against him arising out of the transaction or occurrence that is the subject matter of the plaintiff's claim against the third-party plaintiff. In such a case, the third-party defendant then is entitled to assert the defenses, counterclaims and cross-claims provided in Rules 12 and 13.

The sentence reading “The third-party defendant is bound by the adjudication of the third-party plaintiff's liability to the plaintiff, as well as of his own to the plaintiff, or to the third-party plaintiff” has been stricken from Rule 14(a), not to change the law, but because the sentence states a rule of substantive law which is not within the scope of a procedural rule. It is not the purpose of the rules to state the effect of a judgment.

The elimination of the words “the third-party plaintiff, or any other party” from the second sentence of Rule 14(a), together with the insertion of the new phrases therein, are not changes of substance but are merely for the purpose of clarification.

Notes of Advisory Committee on Rules—1963 Amendment

(Video) Module 5.5: Joinder and Intervention

Under the amendment of the initial sentences of the subdivision, a defendant as a third-party plaintiff may freely and without leave of court bring in a third-party defendant if he files the third-party complaint not later than 10 days after he serves his original answer. When the impleader comes so early in the case, there is little value in requiring a preliminary ruling by the court on the propriety of the impleader.

After the third-party defendant is brought in, the court has discretion to strike the third-party claim if it is obviously unmeritorious and can only delay or prejudice the disposition of the plaintiff's claim, or to sever the third-party claim or accord it separate trial if confusion or prejudice would otherwise result. This discretion, applicable not merely to the cases covered by the amendment where the third-party defendant is brought in without leave, but to all impleaders under the rule, is emphasized in the next-to-last sentence of the subdivision, added by amendment.

In dispensing with leave of court for an impleader filed not later than 10 days after serving the answer, but retaining the leave requirement for impleaders sought to be effected thereafter, the amended subdivision takes a moderate position on the lines urged by some commentators, see Note, 43 Minn.L.Rev. 115 (1958); cf. Pa.R.Civ.P. 2252–53 (60 days after service on the defendant); Minn.R.Civ.P. 14.01 (45 days). Other commentators would dispense with the requirement of leave regardless of the time when impleader is effected, and would rely on subsequent action by the court to dismiss the impleader if it would unduly delay or complicate the litigation or would be otherwise objectionable. See 1A Barron & Holtzoff, Federal Practice & Procedure 649–50 (Wright ed. 1960); Comment, 58 Colum.L.Rev. 532, 546 (1958); cf. N.Y.Civ.Prac. Act §193–a; Me.R.Civ.P. 14. The amended subdivision preserves the value of a preliminary screening, through the leave procedure, of impleaders attempted after the 10-day period.

The amendment applies also when an impleader is initiated by a third-party defendant against a person who may be liable to him, as provided in the last sentence of the subdivision.

Notes of Advisory Committee on Rules—1966 Amendment

Rule 14 was modeled on Admiralty Rule 56. An important feature of Admiralty Rule 56 was that it allowed impleader not only of a person who might be liable to the defendant by way of remedy over, but also of any person who might be liable to the plaintiff. The importance of this provision was that the defendant was entitled to insist that the plaintiff proceed to judgment against the third-party defendant. In certain cases this was a valuable implementation of a substantive right. For example, in a case of ship collision where a finding of mutual fault is possible, one ship- owner, if sued alone, faces the prospect of an absolute judgment for the full amount of the damage suffered by an innocent third party; but if he can implead the owner of the other vessel, and if mutual fault is found, the judgment against the original defendant will be in the first instance only for a moiety of the damages; liability for the remainder will be conditioned on the plaintiff's inability to collect from the third-party defendant.

This feature was originally incorporated in Rule 14, but was eliminated by the amendment of 1946, so that under the amended rule a third party could not be impleaded on the basis that he might be liable to the plaintiff. One of the reasons for the amendment was that the Civil Rule, unlike the Admiralty Rule, did not require the plaintiff to go to judgment against the third-party defendant. Another reason was that where jurisdiction depended on diversity of citizenship the impleader of an adversary having the same citizenship as the plaintiff was not considered possible.

Retention of the admiralty practice in those cases that will be counterparts of a suit in admiralty is clearly desirable.

Notes of Advisory Committee on Rules—1987 Amendment

(Video) Module 5.6: Counterclaims and Cross claims

The amendments are technical. No substantive change is intended.

Committee Notes on Rules—2000 Amendment

Subdivisions (a) and (c) are amended to reflect revisions in Supplemental Rule C(6).

GAP Report. Rule B(1)(a) was modified by moving “in an in personam action” out of paragraph (a) and into the first line of subdivision (1). This change makes it clear that all paragraphs of subdivision (1) apply when attachment is sought in an in personam action. Rule B(1)(d) was modified by changing the requirement that the clerk deliver the summons and process to the person or organization authorized to serve it. The new form requires only that the summons and process be delivered, not that the clerk effect the delivery. This change conforms to present practice in some districts and will facilitate rapid service. It matches the spirit of Civil Rule 4(b), which directs the clerk to issue the summons “to the plaintiff for service on the defendant.” A parallel change is made in Rule C(3)(b).

Committee Notes on Rules—2006 Amendment

Rule 14 is amended to conform to changes in designating the paragraphs of Supplemental Rule C(6).

Committee Notes on Rules—2007 Amendment

The language of Rule 14 has been amended as part of the general restyling of the Civil Rules to make them more easily understood and to make style and terminology consistent throughout the rules. These changes are intended to be stylistic only.

Former Rule 14 twice refers to counterclaims under Rule 13. In each case, the operation of Rule 13(a) depends on the state of the action at the time the pleading is filed. If plaintiff and third-party defendant have become opposing parties because one has made a claim for relief against the other, Rule 13(a) requires assertion of any counterclaim that grows out of the transaction or occurrence that is the subject matter of that claim. Rules 14(a)(2)(B) and (a)(3) reflect the distinction between compulsory and permissive counterclaims.

(Video) Step by Step Litigation Under the New Rules of Civil Procedure_Module 1

A plaintiff should be on equal footing with the defendant in making third-party claims, whether the claim against the plaintiff is asserted as a counterclaim or as another form of claim. The limit imposed by the former reference to “counterclaim” is deleted.

Committee Notes on Rules—2009 Amendment

The time set in the former rule at 10 days has been revised to 14 days. See the Note to Rule 6.


What is third party rule? ›

The third-party doctrine is a United States legal doctrine that holds that people who voluntarily give information to third parties—such as banks, phone companies, internet service providers (ISPs), and e-mail servers—have "no reasonable expectation of privacy" in that information.

When can a defendant bring in a third party? ›

A defendant may often find that another person caused or contributed to the loss which the claimant is trying to recover from it. If so, the defendant will want to seek a contribution from that third party for the payment of any damages the claimant is awarded or towards any settlement.

What is the Rule 32? ›

Objections to the competency of a witness or to the competency, relevancy, or materiality of testimony are not waived by failure to make them before or during the taking of the deposition, unless the ground of the objection is one which might have been obviated or removed if presented at that time.

What is the Rule 36? ›

An answering party may not give lack of information or knowledge as a reason for failure to admit or deny unless the party states that the party has made reasonable inquiry and that the information known or readily obtainable by the party is insufficient to enable the party to admit or deny.

What is an example of a third party service? ›

Third-party service providers are paid for their services, but do not have a stake, share, or equity in the company. Common third-party service providers include web-hosting platforms, marketing agencies, software services (including analytics software), contractors, and consultants.

What's the purpose of third party? ›

Because of the difficulties third parties face in gaining any representation, third parties tend to exist to promote a specific issue or personality. Often, the intent is to force national public attention on such an issue.

How do you Implead a third party? ›

Even without an application to be impleaded as a party, the court may, at any stage of the proceedings order that the name of any party, who out to have been joined whether as plaintiff or defendant or whose presence before the court may be necessary in order to enable the court effectually and completely to adjudicate ...

Can a third party defend the main action? ›

Defending the main action as a third party

By defending the main action, a third party not only has the opportunity to dispute the issues raised against them in the third party claim, they can also dispute issues that are raised by the plaintiff against the defendant in the main action.

What is a third party defendant? ›

What is Third Party Defendant? A party who is sued by the original defendant and brought into the case on a theory of being responsible to the defendant for all or part of the claim made by the plaintiff.

What does rule 35 mean? ›

(a) Correction of Sentence.

The sentencing court may correct an illegal sentence at any time and may correct a sentence imposed in an illegal manner within the time provided herein for the reduction of sentence.

What is the rule of 44? ›

Rule 44 requires that a party who “questions the constitutionality of an Act of Congress” in a proceeding in which the United States is not a party must provide written notice of that challenge to the clerk.

What is the rule of 39? ›

- In all actions not triable of right by a jury the court upon motion or if its own initiative may try any issue or question of fact with an advisory jury or the court, with the consent of the parties, may order a trial with a jury whose verdict has the same effect as if trial by jury had been a matter of right.

What does rule 43 mean? ›

Rule 43 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure deals with the presence of the defendant during the proceedings against him. It presently permits a defendant to be tried in absentia only in non-capital cases where the defendant has voluntarily absented himself after the trial has begun.

What is a Rule 63? ›

What does Rule 63 mean? Rule 63, one of the self-styled rules of internet, declares: For every fictional character, there exists a gender-swapped counterpart of that character.

What is the rule of 64? ›

(a) Remedies Under State Law—In General. At the commencement of and throughout an action, every remedy is available that, under the law of the state where the court is located, provides for seizing a person or property to secure satisfaction of the potential judgment.

Who is considered a third party? ›

A third party is someone who is not one of the main people involved in a business agreement or legal case, but who is involved in it in a minor role. You can instruct your bank to allow a third party to remove money from your account.

Why is it called a third party? ›

In commerce, a "third-party source" means a supplier (or service provider) who is not directly controlled by either the seller (first party) nor the customer/buyer (second party) in a business transaction.

What is a third party situation? ›

A third party is an entity that is involved in some way in an interaction that is primarily between two other entities. A contract might be, for example, between a software company that creates a mobile app and an end user.

What is another word for third party? ›

synonyms for third party
  • mediator.
  • arbiter.
  • arbitrator.
  • minor party.
  • third force.
  • unbiased observer.

What are the advantages of third party? ›

Hiring a third party creates significant time savings in labor, and team members can continue to move forward on other projects that would otherwise become stagnant with the introduction of a new one. This allows the company to accomplish more projects in a shorter time frame.

What are third parties simple definition? ›

What Is a Third Party? A third party is an individual or entity that is involved in a transaction but is not one of the principals and, thus, has a lesser interest in the transaction.

What does it mean to Implead a party? ›

to bring (a new party) into an action because he or she is or may be liable to the impleading party for all or part of the claim against that party. 3. to accuse; impeach.

What is the difference between a cross claim and a third party claim? ›

A cross claim is a claim asserted by one defendant against another defendant. A third party complaint is a complaint filed by a defendant against a third (new) party. A counter claim is a claim by the defendant against the plaintiff. These are typically filed as part of the Answer to the original complaint.

Can a third party claim be added prior to Litis Contestatio? ›

Although a third party claim is constituted by different facets such as medical costs, general damages and loss of earnings, a third party claim is an in- divisible and unitary concept and is not actively or passively transmissible before litis contestatio.

What is a 3rd party claim? ›

What is a third-party claim? A third-party claim is a claim filed by someone other than the policyholder or insurance company. If you're in a car accident that someone else causes, you can file a third-party claim with the other driver's insurance for your covered accident-related expenses.

What is a third party case? ›

What is a "third-party" case? A third-party case is a civil lawsuit against a party other than your employer who bears at least some fault for your work-related injury. In most on-the-job injuries, your first recourse is to the Workers' Compensation system.

Can a plaintiff examine a third party? ›

Here, the Plaintiffs did not have the right to examine the Third Party for discovery. Despite the fact the Third Party consented to being discovered by the Plaintiffs, that consent does not then make the evidence that arises from that discovery available for use by the Plaintiffs against the Defendants.

What is an example of third party compensation? ›

Third-party insurance covers an individual or firm against a loss caused by some third party. An example is automobile insurance that will indemnify the insured if another driver causes damage to the insured's car.

What's a third party plaintiff? ›

Legal Definition of third-party plaintiff

: a defendant who files a third-party complaint against a third party.

Who is considered a party to a lawsuit? ›

Parties in a lawsuit are the plaintiff or petitioner bringing the case, or the defendant or respondent defending against one.

What does rule 45 mean? ›

While the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure primarily focus on rights and obligations of parties, Rule 45 permits parties to serve a non-party with a subpoena for production of documents. That same rule affords the non-party with certain rights and obligations.

What does rule 24 mean? ›

(1) In General. On timely motion, the court may permit anyone to intervene who: (A) is given a conditional right to intervene by a federal statute; or. (B) has a claim or defense that shares with the main action a common question of law or fact. (2) By a Government Officer or Agency.

What is the Rule 31? ›

(a) Serving Questions; Notice. (1) A party may take the testimony of any person, including a party, by deposition upon written questions without leave of court except as provided in paragraph (2).

What is the 47 rule? ›

The court may permit the parties or their attorneys to examine prospective jurors or may itself do so. If the court examines the jurors, it must permit the parties or their attorneys to make any further inquiry it considers proper, or must itself ask any of their additional questions it considers proper.

What are considered original documents for purposes of presenting evidence in court? ›

(a)The original of the document is one the contents of which are the subject of inquiry. (b)When a document is in two or more copies executed at or about the same time, with identical contents, all such copies are equally regarded as originals.

What is the 69 rule? ›

The Rule of 69 is a simple calculation to estimate the time needed for an investment to double if you know the interest rate and if the interest is compound. For example, if a real estate investor can earn twenty percent on an investment, they divide 69 by the 20 percent return and add 0.35 to the result.

What is a Rule 29 motion? ›

Motion for a Judgment of Acquittal. (a) Before Submission to the Jury. After the government closes its evidence or after the close of all the evidence, the court on the defendant's motion must enter a judgment of acquittal of any offense for which the evidence is insufficient to sustain a conviction.

What is a Rule 37? ›

The purpose of Rule 37 is to establish and regulate a judicial case management system to apply at any stage after notice of intention to defend or oppose is filed.

What is a Rule 58? ›

Rule 58 provides that orders may be granted in matrimonial matters in respect of the following – interim maintenance; a contribution towards the costs of a pending matrimonial action; interim care of any child; or. interim contact with any child.

What is a Rule 58 application? ›

Rule 58(1) of the Magistrate's Courts Rules provides: “(1) This rule shall apply whenever a spouse seeks relief from the court in respect of one or more of the following matters: (a) interim maintenance; (b) a contribution towards the costs of a pending matrimonial action; (c) interim care of any child; or.

What is a Rule 45 prisoner? ›

45. —(1) Where it appears desirable, for the maintenance of good order or discipline or in his own interests, that a prisoner should not associate with other prisoners, either generally or for particular purposes, the governor may arrange for the prisoner's removal from association [F1for up to 72 hours].

What is the 66 rule? ›

The title of Rule 66 has been expanded to make clear the subject of the rule, i.e., federal equity receivers. The first sentence added to Rule 66 prevents a dismissal by any party, after a federal equity receiver has been appointed, except upon leave of court.

What rule is Genderswap? ›

Usage. Rule 63 is commonly used as a term to refer to gender-swapped interpretations of existing characters in fanworks, such as fan art, fan fiction and cosplay, and it is particularly pervasive in the anime and manga community, where communities sprang up built around romantic gender-swap relationships.

What is Rule 65 of the Rules of court? ›

The court may issue a preliminary injunction or a temporary restraining order only if the movant gives security in an amount that the court considers proper to pay the costs and damages sustained by any party found to have been wrongfully enjoined or restrained.

What is the rule of 42? ›

The so-called Rule of 42 is one example of a philosophy that focuses on a large distribution of holdings, calling for a portfolio to include at least 42 choices while owning only a small amount of most of those choices.

What is a third party situation? ›

A third party is an entity that is involved in some way in an interaction that is primarily between two other entities. A contract might be, for example, between a software company that creates a mobile app and an end user.

Who is considered a third party person? ›

third party. n. a person who is not a party to a contract or a transaction, but has an involvement (such as one who is a buyer from one of the parties, was present when the agreement was signed or made an offer that was rejected).

Why is it called 3rd party? ›

In commerce, a "third-party source" means a supplier (or service provider) who is not directly controlled by either the seller (first party) nor the customer/buyer (second party) in a business transaction.

What does 3rd party mean in a relationship? ›

According to experts, a third party is a person or group besides the couple, involved in a situation, especially a dispute. He or she can be either of the couples' family members, friends, co-workers or neighbours.

What is another word for third party? ›

synonyms for third party
  • mediator.
  • arbiter.
  • arbitrator.
  • minor party.
  • third force.
  • unbiased observer.

What is another term for third parties? ›

What is another word for third party?
go-betweenminor party
third forceunbiased observer
62 more rows

Who is considered third party to a contract? ›

Third party means any person (including companies, partnerships, legal entities, churches, governmental authorities and agencies) who is not a party to the agreement.

How do third parties work? ›

Key Takeaways

Third parties work on behalf of one or more individuals involved in a transaction. In the case of a real estate transaction, an escrow company works to protect all parties in the transaction.

Can a person be a third party? ›

1. Who Is a Third Party? A 3rd party definition can be any person or legal entity that is not directly involved in the execution of a legal agreement, but may be indirectly involved in a number of different ways.

Is a spouse considered a third party? ›

Third Parties - Divorce Encyclopedia. Term Definition Third Parties - individuals, besides the husband and wife, who become parties in a divorce action.

What is the difference between 1st party and 3rd party? ›

The first party is the insured individual. The second party is the insurance company. The third party is another individual. Therefore, a third-party insurance claim is made by someone who is not the policyholder or the insurance company.

What is 1st 2nd and 3rd party? ›

1st party = I. 2nd party = you. 3rd party = he/she (i.e. someone external to the conversation)

What is 1st party vs 3rd party? ›

First-party data is what you collect from your audience directly, via your own channels. Third-party data is collected by another entity that is entirely separate from your relationship with your audience. So these terms are about where data comes from — how it ends up in a marketer's hands.

What are the risks of using a third party? ›

Third Party Risk Influence
  • Intellectual Property (IP) Theft.
  • Credential Theft.
  • Spear Phishing.
  • Data Exfiltration.
  • Network Intrusion.
  • Fileless Malware.
28 Jul 2022

How do you deal with third party relationships? ›

5 things to know about managing third-party relationship risks
  1. Ensure adequate insurance coverage. ...
  2. Review contracts to align with new laws. ...
  3. Develop and implement a third-party risk management process. ...
  4. Use of audits to help manage risk expectations.

Who is a third party partner? ›

Third Party Partner means a Person who, immediately prior to the acquisition (whether direct or indirect) of a Property by Borrower, held an interest in such Property or in the Person who owned it.


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